The trunk is the permanent, aboveground woody stem of a tree or vine.

A cordon is a long arm, usually trained along a wire, from which fruiting canes develop.

Fruiting canes are the one-year-old canes that will produce the current …


1. (noun) The physical support structure used for training vines. The structure is usually made of wood or metal for vigorous vines. 2. (verb) To train on a trellis.

Grapevine training

The arrangement of plant parts spatially, done to develop a structure that optimizes the utilization of sunlight and promotes productivity, adapts to the characteristics of the grape cultivar, promotes efficient and sustainable vineyard management practices, and is economical to establish


The top of the style, where pollen enters the pistil.

Parts of a flower.

A perfect flower has functional male parts (stamens) and female parts (pistils). 

Pistil: The female part of a flower, consisting of a stigma, a style …


The biological mechanism that produces seedlessness in some fruits, even though those fruits have undergone normal pollination and fertilization. The resulting embryo is aborted, but the fruit continues to grow. The remains of the undeveloped seed can be seen in